Dr. Barbara Mathis is Professor of Music at Lamar University
where she teaches studio voice, language dictions, structure & function
of the voice, and graduate vocal methods. She received BM, MM, and
from the University of North Texas and has taught at other universities
and public schools in Texas, Alaska, and Florida. Dr. Mathis studied
voice with Virginia Botkin and Alan Lindquest, coached with Regine
Wustman, Harold Heiberg, and Berton Coffin, and served in a research
internship with Van L. Lawrence, M.D.
One of the most important decisions a singer must make involves not only finding a suitable vocal technique, but choosing appropriate vocalises and exercises which will develop and train the voice as well as help maintain it to ensure a long and healthy vocal life. Eventually, the individual singer must take responsibility for his or her own vocal development, maintenance, and health. In the event that misuse, overuse, or some other factor should cause vocal fatigue or a more severe problem, beneficial therapeutic exercise becomes priceless.
Therapeutic exercise for the body is not a new concept, historians have traced its use from ancient times to the present,1 and general theories and basic principles for therapeutic exercises have developed for its use. Vocal exercise also stems from earlier centuries as a beneficial activity for general body hygiene and good health,2 and has developed as a training and therapy technique for the speaking/singing voice. Singing exercise as therapy for the voice is also not a new concept but has not been widely used for various voice disorders; nevertheless, sources do attest to the benefits of singing in relationship to vocal and general body health. For voice professionals to
understand fully the principles and benefits of good vocal exercise, it is necessary for them to have knowledge of general exercise theories, the structure and function of the vocal folds and other parts of the larynx, the development and character of various exercise routines, and results from the exercises on the physiological and functional properties of the voice.
The goal of good vocal exercise might well follow the definition of general therapeutic exercise that Licht presents: "therapeutic exercise is motion of the body or its parts to relieve symptoms or to improve function."3 Kottke defines therapeutic exercise as the prescription of bodily movement in order to correct impairment, improve musculoskeletal function, or maintain a state of well‑being, and further states that it may vary from highly selected activities for specific muscles to general activities for restoring a patient's peak physical condition.4 Specific exercises are active movements whose design seeks to restore function by strengthening particular muscle groups, mobilizing certain joints, or re‑educating neuromuscular coordination. Colson and Collison, experts in progressive exercise therapy, believe that this type of exercise is of great value in the treatment of injuries and disorders of the locomotor system where certain muscular groups and joints are affected and the rest are comparatively normal. They state that all types of specific exercises must conform to three basic principles:
1. They must be performed in a smooth and rhythmical manner, so that they do not subject muscles and joints to sudden unexpected stresses and strains.
2. They must be based on sound starting positions.
3. They must provide smooth progression from the stage of extreme weakness to the stage of full use against the stresses of normal working conditions.
In addition, all exercises that aim to strengthen weak muscles should provide as wide a range of movement as possible.5
Writing about sports medicine, Allman agrees that effective exercise which builds strength and flexibility must include as wide a range of movement as possible, and further states that, "Prevention of injury is most likely when the muscles have been strengthened in every position and over full range of possible movement."6 Rehabilitative exercises, on the other hand, should begin with little or no movement and progress to wider ranges of movement, just as the duration and intensity of the rehabilitative exercises will be adjusted to the relative condition of the muscles and joints in question. Allman further states that in the beginning phases of a rehabilitation program, it is important to teach effort‑relaxation cycles so that the muscle does not remain in a state of constant tension.7 He believes that many exercises in each of the two exercise classifications in sports medicine, conditioning or rehabilitative, may be the same‑‑the biggest difference being in the intensity of the exercise.8 Knuttgen offers these principles for therapeutic and conditioning exercise:
Physical fitness is not a general quality; specific capacities set limits on specific types of physical activity. In order to improve a particular physical performance, the specific capacities must be identified and stressed with appropriate exercise. The greater the level of appropriate stress, the greater the improvement of the level of fitness for a particular physical performance.9
He summarizes the benefit of appropriate exercise by stating that ". . .a simple exercise session of any intensity elicits physiological responses from people no matter what their level of physical training. . ."10
The benefits of therapeutic and conditioning exercise have been well established in fields such as medicine and sports and, to a certain extent, in the voice professions; however, sources in vocal fields seem to disagree about the benefits of various techniques and the extent to which exercise is beneficial to the voice. For example, Norman Punt, a physician, believes that no singing technique can strengthen the voice;11 yet, for centuries singing techniques and exercises have sought to build a stronger as well as more beautiful voice;12 and Perkins points out that Wagnerian tenors and sopranos, who are required to produce tones of extreme loudness at high pitches, logically should become hoarse within minutes. He says:
Most of us do not achieve such volumes or pitches when we yell at football games, and you can observe for yourself how long you can survive vocally when performing at the top of your voice. Yet professional vocalists, whether singers or actors, not only survive but may conclude long performances vocally as strong as when they started.13
Perhaps, then, the voice can be conditioned, strengthened, and rehabilitated in much the same way as other parts of the body through technique and exercise.
A discussion of vocal fold structure and muscle function within the larynx lends credence to the above contention. The vocal folds have a layered structure and are intricately controlled by the laryngeal muscles, thus enabling humans to produce vast differences in pitch, intensity, and quality. Hirano classifies the five layers of the vocal fold (the epithelium, the three layers of the lamina propria, and the vocalis muscle) into three mechanical sections: the cover, consisting of the epithlium and the superficial layer of the lamina propria; the transition, consisting of the intermediate and deep layers of the lamina propria; and the body or vocalis muscle. He contends that this layered structure of the vocal folds is of great significance, in that each layer has a different mechanical property, the outer four layers are controlled passively, the innermost layer is regulated actively and passively, and almost all pathologies of the vocal folds originate from a specific layer.
Hirano explains the control of the vocal folds by describing the function of the five major intrinsic laryngeal muscles‑‑the cricothyroid muscle, the vocalis muscle, the lateral and posterior cricoarytenoid muscles, and the interarytenoid muscle. When the cricothyroid muscle contracts, the vocal folds are brought into a paramedian position, the level of the vocal fold within the larynx is lowered, the entire vocal fold is stretched, elongated, and thinned, and all layers are passively stiffened. When the vocalis muscle is activated and stiffened, the vocal folds are adducted (closed), lowered, shortened, and thickened, and the outer cover and transition layers are passively slackened. The action of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle adducts and lowers the tip of the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage thereby adducting, lowering, elongating, and thinning the vocal fold, whereas the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle abducts (opens) and elevates the tip of the vocal process thereby abducting and elevating the vocal fold. The interarytenoid muscle adducts the vocal fold mainly at the cartilaginous portion, thereby controlling the position of the vocal fold but not affecting significantly its mechanical property. The combined activity of all these muscles controls the vocal fold during phonation.14 The intricate and complicated coordination necessary for such a process implies the need for conditioning and practice (and perhaps even strengthening) when the demands of the professional voice user are placed on the mechanism. When physiological and/or functional disorders occur, electromyographic investigations show changes in the muscular actions,15 thus indicating a need for muscle re‑training or compensation where possible.
The voice professions must then decide which exercises and techniques will best fit the intricate muscular actions of the larynx. Most of the reviewed sources in athletic, medical, and therapeutic fields advocate warm‑up exercises, and some, such as Tucker, feel that the lack of proper warm‑up procedures may contribute to vocal dysfunction in singers.16 Sataloff also lists lack of warm‑up and lack of exercise as ways to abuse the voice and guarantee a singer a short career.17 Sundberg states that when many singers do not warm up, their voices will not function as readily as otherwise, and that poorly warmed‑up voices are less durable than the appropriately warmed‑up voice. Warm‑up procedures differ greatly and, as Sundberg contends, the warm‑up is a poorly understood process:
What happens to the vocal folds during the warm‑up? The vocal folds contain muscle tissues as a major component. As is the case with other muscles, the vocal folds depend on efficient blood circulation in order to retain good function and viscosity. It seems likely that good circulation is stimulated by an appropriate warm‑up procedure. Other people who depend on perfect muscle function, like ballet dancers and athletes, tend to warm up their muscles in advance. This warming‑up is realized by movements or massage. It is difficult to give massage directly to one's vocal folds, but perhaps the same effect is reached if we can use them for a gentle phonation instead. Let us hope that research will soon start to pay attention to this important but very poorly understood issue!18
In addition to warm‑up exercises, singers and other professional voice users often employ more vigorous exercises to train and condition the voice. One example of vigorous training and exercise for singers is found in the Italian school of singing, and a survey of the history of Italian techniques and exercises by this author19 reveals that some voice teachers from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries have employed a few of the same basic exercises. Earlier teachers such as Mancini (1777), Nava (1870?), Lamperti, F. (1875 or 1877), Lamperti, G. B. (1893), Garcia (1894), and Marchesi (about 1905) provided exercises to aid the student in blending the different vocal registers, acquiring flexibility and agility, mastering intensity levels, and improving breath control, articulation, and resonance. In the twentieth century, singing teachers such as Witherspoon (1925), Wilcox (1945), Vennard (1973), Lindquest (1971, 1983), and Coffin (1987) have developed and/or borrowed similar exercises to accomplish the same goals.
Because he developed a specific lesson design and practice routine which includes a set of exercises, Lindquest warrants further discussion. Born in 1891, Karl Albert Lindquest was educated in the public schools of Chicago, studied violin as a child, and sang in church choirs. His voice teachers were Boroff, William C. Hall, Theodore Harrison, Herbert Witherspoon, Vilonat, Sidney Dietsch, William S. Brady, Joseph Hislop, and Ingebjart‑Isene. Sometime during his career as "a successful concert‑tenor with many orchestra and choral societies,"20 Lindquest became associated with Vaudeville as Allan Rogers, and eventually changed his professional name to Allan Rogers Lindquest. In 1917 and 1918, Lindquest made some of the first recordings for Edison, and the length alone of his listing In Edison Re‑Creations shows in part the esteem and respect paid him by his contemporaries:
LINDQUEST, ALBERT, Tenor, RE‑CREATIONS
This tenor, by birth and by training thoroughly American, has an enviable record of achievement. Discovered while a student at the University of Chicago, by the well known Bonci, he assiduously devoted himself to study of voice and music which has well equipped him for both concert and recital. A mere reference to his engagements tells how appealing must be his singing and how fine his musicianship. As soloist he has appeared with the Philadelphia, New York and Minneapolis Symphony Orchestras. With the last mentioned his performances total one hundred and seventy‑five. The New York Oratorio Society has three times engaged him for such works as "Elijah" and many of the important choral societies outside of that city have recognized his prominence and featured him as their soloist. Through his own song recitals, the whole country has become enamored of his lovely voice, which appeals not only to the natural lover of music, but also to the trained and watchful artist.21
In addition to having a successful singing career, Lindquest taught singing and enjoyed a teaching career which spanned nearly six decades. In a paper he presented at a meeting of the American Academy of Teachers of Singing, Lindquest set forth his opinions of singing and teaching:
I am reminded today of a statement made by a famous singer of the last generation. I refer to the fabulous baritone, Battistini, who at the age of 74, on his death‑bed, said, "How I wish I had another life in which to further study the glorious art of singing. There is so much more to learn." That is exactly how I feel at the same age as that master singer.
We are going to say that singing basically is a gentle athletic exercise combined with an emotional state‑‑an exalted feeling because of our urge to express.
In my own experience in teaching, I have found that fine results come from working for functional freedom of the entire singing instrument. The fundamental laws regarding singing with functional freedom are based on the correct posture, freedom in breathing, freedom in primary vibration of the vocal cords, freedom from tension in the root of the tongue, freedom in articulation, all resulting in technical proficiency and vocal freedom.
The famous Italian master, Lamperti, made a most interesting observation. He said, "Don't sing until you'd die if you didn't." The development of this desire to sing for the sheer joy of singing is the primal motivating factor and should be encouraged by teacher and student alike. The control of the voice consists in the release of the voice. The development of the voice as an instrument depends upon our willingness to call to our aid the spiritual and emotional stimuli of inspiration, joy, enthusiasm, and love. This mental and spiritual attitude is the wellspring from which all good singing stems.22
Technically, Lindquest combined the principles of the Italian school with those gained from the studio of a Swedish throat surgeon, professional singer, and voice teacher, G. W. Bratt,23 whose studio produced Joseph Hislop, Ingebjart‑Isene, Kirsten Flagstad, and Jussi Bjoerling. Lindquest conducted his voice lessons with these objectives governing the design and resultant exercises: separation and development of the vocal registers, coordination and blending of the registers, vowel clarity and modification, the "perfect" vocal attack, and flexibility. Students received instruction in body and facial posture, breathing techniques, relaxation, and exercises to help accomplish these goals. Lindquest was quick to say that no one should attempt to learn a technique or exercise without proper instruction in its execution; however, a brief description and discussion of the exercises are included below:
A. The warm‑up "massage"
B. Separation and blending of the registers
C. Coordinating vocalises (for B and D)
2. Nierri tu mi chiania bella
3. Ying, yang, yoong
4. Eh‑oo‑eh [e‑u‑e]
D. Vowel clarity and modification, attack, and flexibility
1. Eh [e] with alterations [e , ]
2. Ee [i] plus four vowels [e, Y, o, u]
3. Steam engine
4. All vowels with alterations
E. Advanced exercises
2. Great Scale
3. Messa di voce
The gentle warm‑up exercises prepare the voice much as warm‑up procedures aid athletes: the muscles get a gentle stretching. The "cuperto" exercise, through use of the two‑octave skip and vowels which encourage register changes, enables the singer almost immediately (with proper instruction) to use pure heavy register ("chest") and light register ("falsetto" or "whistle"). This exercise evidently was devised by Wilcox24 for use with male voices and adapted by Lindquest to use with all voices.25 The "alleluia" vocalise encourages a blending of the registers, especially for the top note.
Some of the exercises accomplish more than one goal at a time and act as coordinating units. The "Nng" vocalise sets ground work for a good vocal attack and encourages "tone focus." Exercise C‑4 separates the registers, then blends the registers, and automatically aids the singer in finding the proper vowel alternations (vowels are altered to aid resonance and control timbre in the upper range), a technique recommended by Garcia,26 Coffin,27 and other singing teachers. Flexibility, proper vowel resonance, and vocal attack may be practiced by using the final vocalises listed under letter D. Exercise D‑1 is done quickly, eventually aiding flexibility and the feeling of vowel alterations. Exercise D‑2 encourages vowel clarity and strength. Exercise D‑3 allows practice for a gentle but non‑breathy vocal attack. Various singers and teaching studios have used Exercise D‑4 for its value in teaching flexibility and vowel formation. Lindquest also taught more advanced exercises (Exercises E‑1, E‑2, E‑3), such as the "messa di voce" and the "Great Scale" from the Italian school. In general, Lindquest seems to have combined a physiological basis (perhaps in part gained from the Swedish throat surgeon), successful methods from the Italian school (Garcia, Lamperti, Marchesi, Witherspoon), and concepts of colleagues such as Wilcox with his own innovative ideas, explanations, and exercises. No doubt sixty years teaching experience provided ample time for trial and adjustment.28
Other vocal experts have used the same or similar exercises to develop, train, or rehabilitate the voice. The yawn‑sigh exercise appears often in many of the reviewed sources. It seems to enhance relaxation while gently massaging the mechanism and producing a better voice quality. Speech therapists, such as Boone29 and Case,30 use the yawn‑sigh with their patients, and singing teachers advocate its use as well. Vennard31 recommended the exercise as one of his two key vocalises, both of which he discussed with and may have borrowed from Lindquest,32 one of Vennard's teacher/colleagues. Currently singing teachers, such as Tavener,33 are advocating the use of the yawn‑sigh, although its execution may differ from teacher to teacher.
Coffin, also a student and colleague of Lindquest, describes for female voices a singing exercise similar to Lindquest's yawn‑sigh and cuperto exercises:
. . .sing "little oo" in Whistle Register on a downward glide to an /AH/ on the lowest note, which may be either two octaves or a twelfth below. The "little oo" is first gained by a pencil sharpener sized opening of the lips and with a thought of nasality. Later the sound can be gained by a certain opening in the back of the throat as heard by children on the playground.34
The exercise proceeds to include singing half steps up the scale on the [u] vowel and thus, according to Coffin, establishes vocal cord action for female head voice. Coffin gives for male voices a similar exercise which begins on the "little oo" in falsetto register and establishes male mixed voice or "covered voice," a term used by Lindquest to describe his "cuperto" exercise.35 Coffin recommends exercises similar to other Lindquest exercises, such as the "siren," the "Nng‑ah," and vowel and flexibility vocalises from the Italian school.36
Proctor also advocates use of exercises similar to those from the Italian school. Examples he gives are an exercise to aid singers in breath control (a prolonged crescendo and diminuendo on a tone sustained as long as possible), a flexibility scale, and scales which work over the "break" or register change in the voice.37 Proctor recommends that singers practice vowel exercises to achieve optimal vocal resonance, a process which consists of the appropriate shaping of the supraglottic airway. He states that during these exercises some emphasis may be placed on lowering the entire mandible and keeping the larynx low in the neck.38 Proctor does not seem to agree with some of the previously mentioned exercises which give practice in extending the range and singing notes in the upper range. As he explains:
I stress here that these scales which we have been discussing need not, and indeed should not, extend to the highest notes of the voice. . . .One of the first questions I ask a patient who is in trouble with the voice is whether or not he practices his high tones. If he does so excessively this is very likely the source of trouble.39
McKinney also advocates more conservative exercises which begin in mid‑range and work downward by half steps, or arpeggiated exercises which start fairly low in the range and extend upward, but first limited to an interval of a fifth and eventually extending to a twelfth. He recommends that each warm‑up routine include general bending and stretching body exercises and exercises designed to release tension in the shoulders, neck, and throat. McKinney states that although singing does not require great muscle strength, it does require muscle coordination, and that the muscles needed for singing may be trained effectively through a planned exercise program.40 Further, Sataloff believes that vocal practice is essential to the singer, just as physical exercise is to the athlete, and that "proper vocal practice incorporates scales and specific exercises designed to maintain and develop the vocal apparatus."41
All singers (or any other professional voice users) should choose techniques and an exercise program which best suit their own voices and changing vocal conditions. They may limit their choice of techniques to those they have found successful, or they may wish to try exercises and vocalises from different voice professions and different schools of thought. In his study of singing techniques from English, French, German, and Italian schools, Miller concludes that some systems for producing vocal sound are more efficient from the standpoint of physical function than are others. Singers, as well as those from other vocal professions, might wish to heed his advice to young singers:
The young singer, European, North or South American, or Asiatic, should look for a technique which will equip him or her to sing expressively without violating physical function; such a technique should avoid the over‑specialized vocal production which often results from the aesthetic demands of regional schools of singing. A wise singer will look for that internationalization of technique which closely corresponds to the best elements of the historical tradition of the Italian School.42
If the essentials of the Italian system are the preferred technique, a singer will choose, according to Klein, specific ideas and exercises to master breathing, resonance, vowel formation and attack, the sostenuto, the legato, the portamento, the "messa di voce," and agility.43
These same techniques and exercises can be beneficial not only to healthy singers but to other voices as well, including those with disorders. Luchsinger and Arnold claim that singing produces increased ventilation of the blood in the lungs, helps build resistance to respiratory disease, and benefits the larynx by helping its muscles, ligaments, and joints retain their elasticity and strength for a longer time.44 Sataloff reports that singing lessons greatly help nonsingers with voice problems, often expedite therapy, and appear to improve the result in some patients.45 In writing about voice therapy for benign lesions of the vocal cords, Brodnitz says that vocal exercises have to be planned with an understanding of the basic facts of voice production, and that any improvement of resonator and activator control will improve vocal cord function.46 Speech therapists report success with singing exercises for their patients and provide samples of various types of vocalises.47
Generally, therapists recommend singing exercises to improve laryngeal strength rather than to relieve hyperfunction or muscle tension dysphonia and any resultant pathology such as polyps or nodules. Sometimes the recommendation for these voice disorders is partial voice rest or reduction of vocal use in conjunction with other therapy techniques. However, a study using Lindquest=s technique and exercises produced positive therapeutic results for singers with pathology such as hyperfunction, nodules, paralyzed vocal fold, and iatrogenic complications. Evidently, the exercises did not put undue strain on the already hyperfunctional and/or physiologically abnormal voice, but the benefits of exercise for a healthy larynx held true for the pathological voice. Therapy using the Lindquest exercise routine has continued for over fifteen years, producing similar results. Thus, appropriately designed and executed exercises have the potential to train and develop the voice and to help maintain and restore vocal health.
Choose carefully and choose well. Your vocal technique and certainly the exercises you practice each day should give you a beautiful sound and help you keep a healthy voice for a lifetime.
Barbara Mathis, Ph.D.
1 Sidney Licht, “History,” Therapeutic Exercises, ed. John V. Basmajian, (Baltimore,
1978), p. 1.
2 Gretchen Finney, “Medical Theories of Vocal Exercise and Health”, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. XL, No. 5 (September 1966), pp. 395-396.
3 Licht, p. 1.
4 Frederic J. Kottke, “Therapeutic Exercise,” Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ed. Frank Krusen, M.D., (Philadelphia, 1971), p. 385.
5 John H. C. Colson and Frank W. Collison, Progressive Exercise Therapy, (Boston, 1983), pp. 3-4.
6 Allman, Fred L., “Exercise in Sports Medicine,” Theapeutic Exercises, ed. John V. Basmajian (Baltimore, 1978), p. 456.
7 Ibid, p. 463.
8 Ibid, p. 451.
9 Howard G. Knuttgen, ed., Neuromuscular Mechanisms For Therapeutic and Conditioning Exercise, (Baltimore, 1976), p. 115.
10 Ibid, p. 94.
11 Norman A. Punt, Journal of Laryngology and Otolaryngology, Supp. No. 6, London, Invicta Press, July, 1983.
12 Weldon Whitlock, Bel Canto For The Twentieth Century, (Champaign, Illinois, 1968), p. x.
13 William H. Perkins, Ph.D., “Mechanisms of Vocal Abuse,” The Voice Foundation Seventh Symposium, Part II (1978), p. 107.
14 Minoru Hirano, M.D., Clinical Examination of Voice, (New York, 1981), p. 4-9.
15 Ibid, pp. 17-22.
16 Harvey M. Tucker, M.D., The Larynx, (New York, 1987), p. 156.
17 Robert T. Sataloff, M.D., “Ten Good Ways to Abuse Your Voice: A Singer’s Guide to a Short Career (Part I),” The NATS Journal, Vol. 42, No. 1 (September/October 1985), pp. 23-24.
18 Johan Sundberg, The Science of the Singing Voice, (Dekalb, Illinois, 1987), p. 193.
19 Barbara A. Mathis Thomas, A History of Instruction in “Bel Canto” Singing, a research study for MUED 5500, North Texas State University, Denton, Texas, 1984.
20 Grove, Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, (6th vol., 1920), p. 103.
21 Thomas A. Edison, Edison Re-Creations, (Orange, New Jersey, 1922), pp. 224-225.
22 Allan R. Lindquest, paper read at the meeting of March 11, 1974, by John Powell, American Academy of Teachers of Singing.
23 G. W. Bratt, Talrostens Fysiologi, (Stockholm, 1908).
24 John C. Wilcox, The Living Voice, (New York, 1945).
25 Allan R. Lindquest, Taped lessons and interviews (1971, 1972, 1977, 1983).
26 Manuel Garcia, Hints On Singing, (New York, 1894, 1982), p. 12.
27 Berton Coffin, Coffin’s Sound of Singing, 2nd ed., (Metuchen, New Jersey, 1987), Chapters 16 and 17.
28 Allan R. Lindquest, Taped lessons and interviews (1971, 1972, 1977, 1983).
29 Daniel R. Boone, The Voice and Voice Therapy, (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1983), pp. 180-182.
30 James L. Case, Ph.D., Clinical Management of Voice Disorders, (Rockville, Maryland, 1984), p. 188.
31 William Vennard, Singing the Mechanism and the Technic, (New York, 1967), p. 219.
32 Lindquest, interview, 1977.
33 "Point Counterpoint,” The NATS Bulletin, Vol. 41, No. 2 (November/December 1984),
34 Berton Coffin, Coffin’s Sounds of Singing, 2nd ed., (Metuchen, New Jersey, 1987), p. 121.
35 Ibid, p. 131.
36 Ibid, Chapters 12-14.
37 Donald F. Proctor, Breathing, Speech, and Song, (New York, 1980), pp. 109-110.
38 Ibid, p. 114.
39 Ibid, pp. 111, 114.
40 James C. McKinney, The Diagnosis and Correction of Vocal Faults, (Nashville, Tennessee, 1982), pp. 182-183.
41 Robert T. Sataloff, M.D., “Professional Singers: The Science and Art of Clinical Care,” American Journal of Otolaryngology, Vol. 2, No. 3 (August, 1981), p. 255.
42 Richard Miller, English, French, German and Italian Techniques of Singing, (Metuchen, New Jersey, 1987), p. 206.
43 Herman Klein, The Bel Canto With particular reference to the singing of Mozart, (London, 1923), pp. 20-34.
44 Richard Luchsinger, M.D. and Godfrey E. Arnold, M.D., Voice-Speech-Language, (Belmont, California, 1965), p. 156.
45 Robert T. Sataloff, M.D., “The Professional Voice: Part III. Common Diagnoses and Treatments,” Journal of Voice, Vol. 1, No. 3 (September 1987), pp. 288-289.
46 Freidrich S. Brodnitz, “Vocal Rehabilitation in Benigh Lesions Of The Vocal Cords,” Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, Vol. 23, No. 1 (February, 1958), p. 115.
47 David Blair McClosky, “General Techniques And Specific Procedures For Certain Voice Problems,” Approaches to Vocal Rehabilitation, ed. Morton Cooper, and Marcia Harting Cooper, (Springfield, 1977), p. 144; John P. Moncur, Modifying Vocal Behavior, (New York, 1974), pp. 200-208; Joseph C. Stemple, Clinical Voice Pathology, (Columbus, Ohio, 1984), p. 131, citing J. Barnes, “Voice Therapy,” a paper presented at the Southwestern Ohio Speech and Hearing Association, Cincinnati, Ohio, Fall, 1977.
48 Barbara Mathis, “Selected Vocal Exercises and Their Relationship to Specific Laryngeal Conditions,” Dissertation at University of North Texas, 1990.
(c) 2006 by Barbara Mathis